Lithuanian cases. Accusative (galininkas)

Accusative is quite easy to understand because it indicates the direct object of the sentence that the action is being performed on. For example if I say „I read a book“, „I“ am the subject and „a book“ is a direct object which is being read by me.

1. As mentioned before, the main function of accusative is to define a direct object, for example:

  • Dabar aš skaitau įdomią knygą. I am reading an interesting book now.
  • Ar pažįsti mano sesę? Do you know my sister?
  • Visada norėjau aplankyti draugus Ispanijoje. I always wanted to visit my friends in Spain.
  • Atsiųsk man žinutę. Send me a message.
  • Jie turėjo išmokti visus pavyzdžius. They had to learn all the examples.

2. Some prepositions require accusative case:

  • Apie. Aš noriu tau papasakoti apie Lietuvą. I want to tell you about Lithuania.
  • Į. Jis norėjo keliauti į Afriką. He wanted to travel to Africa.
  • Pas. Vakar negalėjau pas tave ateiti, nes buvau užsiėmęs. Yesterday I couldn‘t come by because I was busy.
  • Per. Sportuoju tris kartus per savaitę. I do sports three times a week.
  • Prieš. Jis man paskambino prieš valandą. He called me an hour ago.
    Jis sėdi prieš mane. He is sitting in front of me.
    Esi ar prieš mirties bausmę? Are you for or against death penalty?

3. We also use accusative in a lot of time expressions:

  • Pavasarį, vasarą, rudenį, žiemą. In spring, in summer, in autumn, in winter.
  • Šią savaitę, šį mėnesį, savaitgalį. This week, this month, on the weekend.
  • Naktį, dieną (bet: ryte, vakare), vidurnaktį, vidudienį. At night, in the afternoon, at midnight, at noon. [Note that „in the morning“ and „in the evening“ is usually used in locative case – ryte, vakare].
  • Buvome Ispanijoje dvi dienas, tris savaites, keturis mėnesius… We stayed in Spain for two days, three weeks, four months.
  • Pirmą, antrą, trečią, ketvirtą … valandą. At one, two three, four … o‘clock.
  • Pirmadienį, antradienį, trečiadienį… On Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday…

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